Cytotoxic Effect of a Novel Glass Ionomer Nano Zirconia-Silica-Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Material on Human Gingival Fibroblasts
Arbaz Sajjad, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Dasmawati Mohamad
In dentistry, there is an increased use of particles of nano scale to enhance certain traits of dental material, especially conventional glass ionomer cement (cGIC). A novel GIC-nanozirconia-silica-hydroxyapatite (GIC nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA) was developed and morphologically studied with the help of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which showed significant improvement in physico-mechanical, chemical and aesthetics properties. This study was done to assess the cytotoxicity of GIC nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). The HGFs were subcultured within 96 well culture plates. The material extracts of cGIC and GIC nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA were prepared by placing measured quantity of set samples in complete growth medium. The extracts were then added at varying concentrations into the plates and incubated for 24 h and 72 h. The viability of cell culture was then determined using MTT assay. The results show that both GIC nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA and cGIC showed cell viability more than 50% at all concentrations of the material extracts except 200 mg/ml. Therefore, both GIC nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA demonstrated cytotoxicity only at 200 mg/ml concentration. However, a statistically significant difference in cell viability was seen at both 100 and 200 mg/ml concentrations for both the incubation periods.