Antimicrobial Activity of Alloy Metals and Phage on Elizabethkingia anophelis
Dora Gadung Dawat, Asdren Zajmi, Safaa Najah Saud
Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging opportunistic pathogen transmitted via the Anophelis gambiae mosquito. It is associated with a high mortality rate due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics, including multiple beta-lactamases and efflux system. The aim of this study is to isolate phages capable of killing E. anophelis and the combination of phage with seven types of alloy metals (titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), titanium-tantalum (Ti-Ta), silver (Ag), titanium-tantalum-silver (Ti-Ta-Ag), niobium (Nb) and graphene nano-oxide (Go)) against E. anophelis. For the isolation of bacteriophages, water samples were collected from a sewage. Seven types of alloy metals were evaluated for their antibacterial and synergistic activities using the disc diffusion method followed by microdilution broth. The plaques were then isolated and combined with each of the seven alloy metals for standard double layer agar. Plaque morphologies were observed and shown to be clear and irregular. The highest mean of inhibition zone was demonstrated by Ta-Ti, with a value of 20.00±5.19 mm followed by Ti 12.00±2.64 mm, Go 11.00±1.00 mm, Ta 10.33±1.52 mm, Nb 9.33±0.57 mm, Ag 8.66±0.57 mm, and TiTa-Ag 8.66±1.15 mm. As for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all seven alloy metals were shown to have restrained the growth of tested E. anophelis in the range of 25 to 400 mg/mL, whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration showed a restrain in the growth of the tested E. anophelis in the range of 50 to 400mg/mL. However, in regard the combination of the phage and alloy metals, the nanoparticles showed no significant activity. Hence, these findings conclude that both phage and alloy metals are better used independently than when combined.