In vitro Bioactivity of Copper-doped Akermanite Ceramic
Myat Myat-Htun, Ahmad-Fauzi Mohd Noor, Masakazu Kawashita, and Yanny Marliana Baba Ismail
The aim of this paper is to study the effect of copper (Cu2+)-doped into the akermanite structure prepared via high-energy planetary ball milling route in order to enhance the biological response. In this work, the comparisons of physical and mechanical properties between pure and Cu-doped akermanite ceramics were made at the same sintering temperature 1200°C. According to the current results, Cu2+ promotes pore elimination of akermanite ceramic to a significant level (open porosity: < 5%), subsequently improved diametral tensile strength of modified samples to three- or four-folds with respect to pure samples. Additionally, apatite-forming ability of Cu2+-doped akermanite ceramic was assessed in stimulated body fluid (SBF) as well as the effects of ion release from substrate dissolution was evaluated. The results revealed that Cu2+ incorporation into akermanite structure induced the formation of bone-like globular Ca-P phase crystals. Copper dopant slowed down the rate of ion release of akermanite, thus decreased the chemical solubility and maintained a more stable pH environment while sustaining the ability to form apatite in physiological-like solution.