Development and Characterization of Antimicrobial Film from Clinacanthus nutans and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Mixture for Food Packaging
Nurfarahin Mohd-Husni, Nuradibah Mohd Amer, Noor Soffalina Sofian-Seng, Khairul Farihan Kasim
Clinacanthus nutans is a beneficial plant with antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, antiviral, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. This work focused on the development and characterization of antimicrobial film from blends of C. nutans and PVA for food packaging. The films were characterized in terms of morphology, physical and mechanical properties. Antimicrobial activities of the film blends were evaluated using the meat model to mimic packaging for meat. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to discriminate the films and it was found that the PVA 99-100-C. nutans mixture results in the best performing film having similar antimicrobial performance with streptomycin blend films. The PVA 99-100-C. nutans blend film was further characterized using the universal testing machine, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The C. nutans mixture blend film was found to have better mechanical properties than streptomycin blend film with its tensile strength of 0.8 and 0.4 MPa respectively. SEM images revealed that the surface of streptomycin blend film was rough and contains crystalline structures while the surface of the C. nutans mixture blend film contains lignin structures that help make the films more flexible. FTIR analysis reveals the presence of hydroxyl groups which also increases the tensile strength of the film. Based on the findings, blend film of C. nutans flour and PVA have a huge potential to be explored and commercialized as food packing and can be considered as new revolution in food industry.