2-Methoxy-1,4-Naphthoquinone (MNQ) Induces Authophagy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Syukriyah Mat Daud, Nik Soriani Yaacob, Zulkifli Mustafa, Agustine Nengsih Fauzi
Autophagy may occur in cancer cells as a survival mechanism in the process to restrict tumor development, besides attributed to the programmed cell death. The dual function of autophagy has contributed to anticancer research by focusing on autophagy in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the ability of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) to induce autophagy in triple negative breast cancer model (MDA-MB-231) in vitro. The cells were tested with MNQ at 29 µM for determination of autophagy by confocal microscopy. The expression levels of autophagy-related molecules were measured using gene analysis real-time PCR. The results showed that MNQ induced autophagy in MDA-MB-231 cells, indicated by the formation of green-colored autophagosomes and the upregulation of autophagy-related molecules, Beclin 1 and LC3. The autophagy activity of MDA-MB-231 cells that may lead to cancer cell death indicated the potential of MNQ to be further developed as an effective agent/adjuvant against breast cancer.