SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE ENCAPSULATE ALGINATE MICROSPHERES AS DRUG DELIVERY
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has a pH range of 12.5-12.8 and as a result of its high pH, it exerts antibacterial properties. Therefore, Ca(OH)2 has been widely used in dentistry as a root filling material and as a wound treatment dressing for deep cavities and pulpal wounds respectively. However, due to its short residence time in the root canal, Ca(OH)2 must be renewed on a regular basis hence, increasing the number of appointments required and resulting in patient non-compliance. To encounter this shortcoming, the encapsulation of Ca(OH)2 within alginate microspheres (AMs) was proposed to prolong the slow release of Ca(OH)2 onto the targeted site with sufficient concentration. To enable this Ca(OH)2 are encapsulated in AMs via emulsification/gelation method. The effect of Ca(OH)2 to alginate ratio on the formation of the microspheres was evaluated. FTIR analysis showed a peak shift from 1632 and 1425 cm-1 to 1632 and 1430 cm-1 respectively which is due to an ionic bonding between Ca2+ and COO- groups of alginate during crosslinking process of alginate with Ca2+ ions and the presence of calcium as verified microspheres prepared by external gelation which indicated the conjugation between alginate and Ca(OH)2. The morphology of the microspheres was observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM) while the particle size measurement was evaluated using Particle Size Analysis (PSA). SEM observation showed that the AMs and Ca(OH)2 encapsulated AMs (CH-AMs) obtained were spherical in shape, however, the microspheres were entangled between the alginate film. The particle size of the microspheres obtained were less than 200 μm which were within the targeted value regardless of the Ca(OH)2 to alginate ratio.