PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RUBBERWOOD SAWDUST, MUSHROOM SPENT MEDIUM, RICE HUSK, AND RICE HUSK ASH AS POTENTIAL GROWTH SUBSTRATES FOR WILD Schizophyllum commune CULTIVATION
Currently, in Malaysia, there was very limited information on the cultivation of wild Schizophyllum commune mushrooms as compared to other common and popular species such as Pleurotus spp. Hence, the feasibility of utilizing several lignocellulosic biomasses such as rubberwood sawdust (RSD), mushroom spent medium (MSM), rice husk (RH), and rice husk ash (RHA) as a potential growth substrate for optimal mycelial growth rate and yield in wild S. commune cultivation was evaluated in this study based on the lignocellulosic contents and morphology surface analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results indicated that RH (37.82%) contained a large amount of cellulose followed by RSD (34.90%) and MSM (27.21%). There was no cellulose obtained from RHA. Before the cultivation process, the SEM image of RHA showed an even and flat surface with many small holes and RH showed an intact surface. Both RH and RHA contained a high amount of silica. The maximum mycelial growth of 7.71 mm/ day and a yield of 117.76 g were obtained from RH and RSD, respectively. The results demonstrated that RSD with a high amount of cellulose and mild destructed structure in the absence of silica gave best yield under a considerable length of colonization time (21.00±0.24 days). Therefore, RSD should be further explored in the next growth substrate formulation study for various growth responses improvement and enhancements. These findings are vital in sustaining the production of S. commune by the local growers and in ensuring continuous supply in the local market.